Chrysanthemums, sometimes known as “mums,” are a type of quintessential fall flower. Currently, Chrysanthemum (mums) are one of the most popular flowers in the world, second only to the rose, and are a terrific way to add color to any garden. Learn methods for planting mums fully with Garden How through this article!
Before we get into methods for planting Mums, let’s find out the history of these charming Mums.
The origin of Chrysanthemum (Mums)
There are numerous legends surrounding the chrysanthemum, often known as the garden mum, but they all originated in China.
According to records, the chrysanthemum was initially grown in China as a flowering herb around the 15th century B.C. It was thought to offer life-giving properties as an herb. According to legend, the boiling roots were employed as a headache treatment, the young sprouts and flowers were eaten in salads, and the leaves were brewed for a festive drink.
The chrysanthemum first appeared in Japan in the 8th century A.D. The Japanese were so captivated with this flower that they made a single flowered chrysanthemum, the Emperor’s crest and official seal. Chrysanthemums are often considered a symbol of longevity and happiness.
During the 18th century, Dutch explorers are thought to have brought the first chrysanthemums to Europe. While records reveal that six different Mum types were produced in Holland at the time, it was the agriculturally inclined French Huguenots that imported a variety of forms from the Dutch and established Old Purple, one of the most common mums in European gardens.
Other French gardeners dubbed their flower form a pompon because it reminded them of the wool pom-poms on their soldiers’ caps, based on the Chusan daisy brought to Europe by Robert Fortune. Today, pompons are a common chrysanthemum flower shape.
John Stevens, a nurseryman from Hoboken, New Jersey, introduced the Old Purple Chrysanthemum to the Americas in 1798. By 1850, the Chusan daisy had become well-known, and the Chrysanthemum Society of America had been created and presented its inaugural display in 1902.
Are Mums annual or perennial?
Mums are herbaceous plants that are popular among gardeners, but when it comes to planting Mums, one of the first questions that come up is “Are Mums annual or perennial?” whether they are annuals or perennials.
Annuals only grow for one season, whereas perennials grow every year. Mums are perennials that will bloom in the spring for several years if they are well-cared for over the winter. Annuals must be planted every year, whereas perennials can be left alone for years. Mums, in particular, can live for three to five years.
In Zones 5 to 9, cut-flower chrysanthemums, such as spider Mums or football Mums, are perennials, and these varieties are becoming more widely available for purchase online. The annual Mums, yellow daisies (Chrysanthemum multicaule), and painted daisies are also popular and have two botanical names, including Chrysanthemum carinatum or Chrysanthemum tricolor.
Both perennials and annuals have advantages and disadvantages. Mums, for example, return year after year, saving you the trouble of having to buy and grow new flowers all the time. They do, however, necessitate additional maintenance, particularly when it comes to winterizing them.
The reason for planting Mums in your garden?
The chrysanthemum is a flower that we are all familiar with. This flower is noted for its long-lasting symbolism. Frequently planted as attractive plants in the garden.
Planting Mums brings us additional benefits in addition to their ornamental impact and beautification of space.
Chrysanthemum is a plant that has a wide range of therapeutic properties. This plant, according to Oriental medicine, has cooling effects, a bitter taste, and a strong antibacterial and anti-inflammatory impact. When used correctly, this herb has the following beneficial effects:
- Treatment of skin wounds such as itching, sores, tinea pedis, etc. It also helps to speed up the regeneration and growth of blood vessels beneath the skin, which aids in the healing of open wounds and sores.
- The plant contains many antioxidants such as lycopene, zeaxanthin, and lutein that can improve eyesight and treat a variety of eye disorders, including cataracts and blindness.
- Herbal tea can help you fight free radicals, slow down the aging process, and keep your skin looking young and healthy. Flower extracts also have the ability to heal pimples and reduce dandruff on the scalp.
- Treatment of prostate disease, abdominal pain, diarrhea, stomach ulcers, colitis, and cramps.
- Curing respiratory disorders like whooping cough, asthma, and bronchitis, among others.
Varieties of Mums
Before discovering the method for planting Mums, let’s take a look at the most common and widely available sorts of Mums so you can choose the one that most suits your needs, both visually and functionally.
Single chrysanthemums, which are one of the most popular varieties for planting Mums, are distinguished by a flat center and up to five radiating rows of long, daisy-like petals.
A fully developed single-bloom chrysanthemum is typically two to three feet tall and has a bushy appearance. Some of them, though, are known to be scarcely more than a foot tall.
It’s not uncommon for a stem to have only one petal. Single blooms, on the other hand, can form clusters. Amber Morning, Clara Curtis and daisy Mum are common variations.
Icy Isle variations have a yellow core and red petals with yellow stripes, while Fire Island varieties have a yellow center and red petals with yellow stripes. You might also come across semi-double Mums, which are visually beautiful.
Pompom Mums, also commonly called button Mums, produce multitudes of small, spherical blooms in a range of hues.
These lovely pompom varieties are simple to grow and ideal for everyone. The fully doubled, almost spherical blossoms will provide nonstop color from late summer through the first frosts in a traditional cottage garden.
Pompon Bicolor, Pompon Orange, Pompon Pink, Pompon Red, and Pompon Yellow each have one plant in the collection.
- A charming addition to the cottage garden
- Compact plants that thrive in the border and in pots
- Flowers from August until the frosts
Spider Mums will add a touch of elegance to your yard. These unique chrysanthemums are hardy Mums that can withstand winters up to Zone 5. Spider Mums, also known as Fuji Mums, add a unique floral form to the garden and vase. Spider chrysanthemums, like other garden Mums, endure 14 to 21 days in bouquets, making them an excellent choice for a cutting garden.
The petals are placed in concentric circles on a classic chrysanthemum flower, which has a daisy-like structure. The petals or florets of spider Mums are elongated and tubular. The ends of the petal tubes are sometimes hooked or curled. The petals droop freely from the bloom, like spider legs, due to their length. The petals on some spider Mums are slender and threadlike, while the florets on others are larger and thicker.
They are a kind of hardy Chrysanthemum, or garden Mums. Cushion Mums typically achieve a lesser height of 12 to 30 inches. They do not require staking because the plants are usually close-branched. In the autumn landscape, these are the garden Mums that make mounds of color. Cushion Mums come in a variety of colors and floral shapes.
These chrysanthemums, sometimes known as florist Mums, feature lengthy, densely overlapping petals. They can either incurve (where the petals curve up and in toward the flower center) or reflex (where the petals curve outward and away from the flower center). “Coral Charm,” with brilliant purple, pink, and peach flowers, and “Fireflash,” with flaming orange and yellow petals, are two of the most popular decorative kinds.
This variety of Mum, with its exquisite spoon-shaped petals, lives up to its name. These blossoms have a diameter of around 4 inches, making them a small addition to your yard that won’t take up too much room. “Kimie,” the most popular of the spoon Mums, has a single row of golden yellow petals surrounding a tight center disk.
Quilled Mums are similar to single daisies, except they have tubular petals. In contrast, you can find the complete quill flower form in florists or decorative Mums.”Mammoth Yellow Quill,” with yellow spikes, and “Seatons Coffee,” with red spikes that resemble sparklers, are two of the most popular kinds for quilled Mums.
Anemone has lengthy petals, only flatter than its semi-twin, and resembles the long petals of “Spoon” and “Spider” Mums. One or more rows of single flat petals are topped by a rising center of small disk florets on this Mum. Typically, the florets are a deeper tint. Like Spoon Mums, these adorable miniature flowers only grow to around 4 inches in diameter. “Dorothy Mechen flowers,” with light purple blooms, and “Adrienne Mechen,” a near cousin with a pink center and bright white flowers at the tips, are the most frequent anemone kinds.
When is the best time for planting Mums?
Chrysanthemums are hardy perennial flower that grows best in the spring. Those sold in garden centers in the autumn, on the other hand, are frequently treated as annuals. Fall wreaths and gourds, as well as autumn wreaths and gourds, are already in full bloom with stunning autumn jewel-hued colors to decorate your house.
In places where temperatures drop into the single digits throughout the winter, most of these plants won’t make it through the winter if planted after late September. This is because Mums planted late in the season are close to or at the blossoming stage, and they won’t devote enough energy to establishing roots to last the winter. Blooming consumes all of the energy.
The best times to plant Mums are in the spring or early fall since they have more time to establish roots, receive sunshine in the summer, bloom freely in the autumn, and prepare for the upcoming cold season.
The best conditions for planting Mums
Mums prefer a lot of light, whether they’re in a pot or in your garden. Mums grow well in full sun as long as you provide enough water. Pick a spot that gets at least six hours of direct sunlight per day. Lack of sunlight causes plants to grow tall and leggy, with fewer and smaller blossoms. Just keep in mind that light isn’t the same as heat. When summer temperatures are still high, don’t put potted Mums out too early in the season. Plants are unlikely to thrive.
The best soil for planting Mums is moist, well-drained soil. If the soil isn’t draining properly, add compost and mix it to a depth of 8-12 inches for the greatest results. You can also grow Mums in raised beds with a well-draining garden soil mix. Planting Mums 1 inch deeper than they were in the nursery pot, taking care not to disturb the roots. Because their roots are shallow, you should avoid locations where there are a lot of weeds.
When planting Mums in a greenhouse, a temperature of 65 to 70℉ is recommended for the fastest bloom development. Lower temperatures can increase flower number and size while having little effect on floral development time.
Mums are vulnerable to high temperatures during bloom initiation, especially early season types. “Heat delay” is the term for this phenomenon. Heat delay occurs when temperatures exceed 85℉ when short days are allowed to commence flowering. Furthermore, high temperatures can cause poor branching, limited growth, fewer flowers, color reversion, and fading of flowers.
How to plant and grow chrysanthemum seeds?
Planting Mums in pots
You can follow the steps below for planting Mums from seeds
Step 1: Pour a well-draining potting mix into seed germination trays
Fill each seed germination tray cell with soil almost to the top. Dig a 12-inch (30 cm) deep hole in your yard and fill it with water to see if the soil has good drainage. The soil is well-drained if the water drains from the hole within 10 minutes.
Step 2: Fill each cell of the germination tray with 2-3 seeds
It’s easiest to simply pour the seeds into the palm of your hand. Spread the seeds out so they don’t overlap instead of clustering them all together.
Step 3: Cover a fine layer of soil over the seeds
You don’t need to add more soil to the top of the seeds once they’ve been planted. If you merely dropped the seeds into the soil, you should sprinkle a tiny layer of extra soil into each cell to ensure that the seeds are well covered.
- Spray the tray with a spray bottle to keep the soil nice and moist.
- Lightly press the soil down with your fingers.
This will ensure that the seeds have made touch with the soil and are not simply sitting on top. Use the bottoms of your fingers, not the points, to gently flatten the soil.
Step 4: Place the seed tray in a sunny, bright position
The faster and better the seeds germinate, the more sunshine they receive. You can use a heating mat to warm the soil for faster germination by placing it under the tray. Seeds will germinate within 8 to 10 days.
Step 5: Transfer the seedlings into pots
After about 6 weeks, when the stems have grown to about 3 inches (7.6 cm), you can separate them into pots to give their roots more space to develop.
Planting Mums in the ground
After planting Mums from seed in pots for a week or two, you can transfer seedlings to planting Mums in the ground.
Here are some steps for planting Mums:
- Dig a 2-inch layer of compost to a depth of roughly a foot into a site with full sun and well-drained soil. Mums will grow in partial shade, but they won’t bloom as well and tend to sprawl.
- Remove the Mums from the pots with hand pruners. This is the most difficult part of planting Mums in the ground, and you may be tempted to plant them with the blossoms still attached. However, as long as the plants are flowering, they will focus their energy on supporting the blooms rather than establishing roots, and if they survive the winter, they will likely have a poor showing the following year.
- Dig a hole twice the depth of the plant’s roots. You should place the Mums at a spacing of about 18–24 inches (46–61 cm) apart.
- With the soil you took from the hole, backfill around the plant’s roots. Other than the compost you worked into the soil when creating the bed, don’t add additional amendments. As you fill the hole, gently press down with your fingertips to remove any air pockets.
- Slowly and deeply water the plant until the root zone is saturated. If the soil settles around the plant, fill in the depression with extra soil.
- Cover the plant with a 2 to 4 inch layer of organic mulch. Make sure you don’t cover the crown.
Method for caring for Mums
We completed planting Mums, we move on to the significant step that is caring for Mums, which helps your Mums grow healthy. Here are some tips to take care of Mums in pots and outdoors.
How to care for Mums in pots?
Repotting is one of the greatest things you can do for your Mum. You should transplant your Mum to a slightly larger container with good, nutritious potting soil. Remove it from its store pot gently and break up the roots as much as possible – they’re likely to be in a tight ball.
Your chrysanthemum will need a lot of water, whether you repot it or not. Set the pot in a dish of water for a few hours rather than watering from above, as the root ball is likely to be quite tight. This offers the roots a better opportunity to soak up the water. However, if you don’t remove it from the dish after a few hours, the plant may drown. You can water it from above every day or so after that.
Because chrysanthemums in pots need a lot of sunlight, place your pot in a south-facing window or somewhere outside that gets at least 4 hours of sun per day. Keep in mind that in the fall, your sunny summer spots may be much shadier. During the first few days, keep a check on your Mum and make sure it is getting plenty of sunlight.
Although fall Mums aren’t meant to survive the winter, try pruning them and heavily mulching them, or storing them in an unheated garage until spring.
How to take care of Mums outdoors?
It’s just as simple to care for your chrysanthemums indoors as it is to care for them outdoors!
Outdoor Mums, like indoor Mums, should be planted in an area with lots of space. They have shallow roots and struggle to survive in situations where other plants’ roots compete with theirs.
Watering outdoor Mums is similar to watering indoor Mums, especially if you are planting Mums in pots. Give them plenty of water for the first week or so after planting, then one inch every week after that.
If you want to keep your Mums outside, you’ll need to fertilize them. This is unlike indoor Mums. However, you won’t need to fertilize them again until the following growing season, when they begin to produce new growth. You should fertilize at least once a month until August at that point.
Depending on your climate zone, outdoor Mums may also need to be overwintered. To accomplish this, mulch your Mums thoroughly before the first harsh frost. Give them a high pile of straw or wood chips to surround the plant’s entire base. If the winter frost blackens your Mums, simply trim them down to about an inch high, keeping the mulch at least 3 inches high. Overwintering Mums can be deadheaded, but you should not prune the stems until the weather warms up. You may also start spreading the mulch out more as the weather warms up to make way for the mums’ new growth.
Mums can be propagated in a variety of ways, including division and cuttings. The division is the most straightforward and quickest method.
Chrysanthemum propagation by division
Chrysanthemum propagation is quick and simple when done through division. Mums benefit from being divided every three to four years to improve their form and flowering. This is done in the spring and produces one or two more plants. Mums’ centers can get leggy and eventually die out as they grow older.
Dig out the entire root ball of the Mums when the plant begins to sprout in the spring. Cut the root ball into three to five portions using a sharp soil knife or spade. You can use each of these pieces to start a new chrysanthemum plant.
Taking cuttings from Mums
You can also Mums from cuttings for a speedy blooming plant. Cuttings generate the quickest Mum plants, which bloom in a matter of months. Spring and summer are the best times to take cuttings for Mum propagation.
Remove a 2 to 3 inch (5-8 cm) portion of fresh growth at the end of a stem with a sharp, sterilized knife. Remove the leaves from the cutting’s bottom 1 inch (2.5 cm) and place them in peat moss or perlite. At all times, the cutting must be damp but not soggy. Within a few weeks, it will root, and you should pinch off the top growth to induce lateral growth in the new plant.
Insect and disease control
The success of planting mums depends on how you control insects and diseases that damage them.
Insects on Mums
The major suspects to keep an eye on are the tiniest of insects. Mites and thrips are the most difficult to detect. Certain mites leave small webs, although not all of them are visible. Place a piece of white paper under the plant to look for these insects that can distort and destroy the leaves and plant vitality. After shaking the plant, look for moving black or red spots on the paper. Aphids are sucking insects with soft bodies that leave sticky honeydew secretions on foliage and flowers.
Earwigs shred the leaves, while leaf miners leave their distinctive paths beneath the leaves. You can remove the majority of these pests with an insecticidal soap spray or a burst of water. In the case of the leaf miner, remove any afflicted leaves to destroy the pests. Slugs and snails will occasionally eat the plant’s foliage.
The fungal concerns are the easiest to notice and control among the chrysanthemum pests and illnesses that might cause a gardener to frown. Leaf spot disease, rust, powdery mildew, molds, and blights are all illnesses that leave evidential indications on foliage, stems, and blossoms.
There are a variety of antifungal sprays that are useful against these infections, as well as cultural measures such as stopping overhead watering and changing the soil. To avoid the spread of certain diseases, such as rust, wilt, and leaf spot, it may be important to destroy any contaminated plant material.
Sucking insects spread a variety of viruses that have no cure. To name a few, there’s yellow ring spot, tomato mosaic virus, and chrysanthemum smut virus. Stunted growth and yellowed leaves are common symptoms. If you notice these signs, the plants may need to be destroyed.
Problems with planting Mums can be mitigated through correct cultivation, site selection, and the selection of disease-resistant specimens. Sucking insects spread a variety of viruses that have no cure. To name a few, there’s yellow ring spot, tomato mosaic virus, and chrysanthemum smut virus. Stunted growth and yellowed leaves are common symptoms. If you notice these signs, the plants may need to be destroyed.
You can mitigate problems with chrysanthemums through correct cultivation, site selection, and the selection of disease-resistant specimens.
How to pinch Mums?
Pinch back your Mums by snapping off the terminal piece of each stem where the plant develops with your thumb and fingertips. If you want the plant to grow taller, you can remove as much as half of the total height of each stem, or only the topmost growing point.
When pinching Mums, if you can’t get a clean split with your fingers, use a pair of sharp, clean pruners or even a pair of scissors.
You can either compost the trimmed stem tips or root them to grow more plants for future seasons and to share with friends by following these instructions.
If you pinch Mums after mid-July, you risk delaying their bloom time to the point where they won’t produce any flowers before the first hard frost. Because of the shorter growth season in northern climes, you should pinch your Mums’ flowers earlier the further north you dwell.
Companion with Mums
Chrysanthemums are desirable for their bright colors, hardiness, and long-lasting flowers. These flowers look great with other annuals and perennials, especially those that bloom in the fall. Furthermore, several Mum species release natural compounds that destroy dangerous soil worms while also repelling insects. As a result, planting Mums can be combined with other plants to prevent insect pest infestations.
Planting Mums with annuals
Traditional bedding plants like pansies and violas are a bright alternative for adding color to your chrysanthemums. These plants grow great in containers as well. Snapdragons, with their slender flower stalks, provide a pleasant contrast to typical Mums’ more spherical appearance. Gerbera daisies are as brilliantly colored as many chrysanthemums, so they’re a great match for the blooms. Bracteantha, or straw flowers, have a similar appearance to mums and prefer damp but well-drained soil.
Planting Mums with perennials
Pair daisy-like chrysanthemums such as Chrysanthemums with coneflowers that appear similar. These perennial plants bloom in complimentary colors and at the same time as Mums. Alternatively, combine chrysanthemums with Dianthus plants (such as carnations), which will last well into the winter. Lamium, a spreading ground cover, and Eupatorium maculatum, or Joe-Pye weed, are two more perennials that make ideal chrysanthemum companions.
Planting Mums with foliage plants
Foliage plants provide the ideal backdrop for more colorful Mums. Many continue into the winter, providing a beautiful sight even after the Mums have faded. Heuchera is recognized for its vibrant, autumn-colored foliage. In the ground or in containers, ornamental cabbage and kale in tones of rich green, cream, and purple look great around Mums.
Planting Mums with other plants
Tomatoes and chrysanthemums aren’t the most appealing of companions, but some Mums provide essential insect protection for tomatoes, other foods, and decorative plants. C. Coccineum is a nematode-killing plant that kills root nematodes. The flowers of the plant, as well as those of C. Pyrethrins, which are pesticides. These and other lesser-known chrysanthemums are effective insect repellents. Furthermore, white-blooming Mums deter Japanese beetles, so plant them near grapes and roses, which are also bug’s favorites.
Do deer eat Mums?
Deer, in general, will not eat chrysanthemums. However, it’s really up to the deer. Individual deer, like people, have distinct preferences. Although most deer dislike chrysanthemums, there may be one or two exceptions. When it comes to finding deer and rabbit resistant plants, you’ll have to rely on trial and error. Planting Mums among astilbe, hellebores, and bleeding hearts, which keep deers away from your Mums.
How long do Mums last after they bloom?
Although fall is commonly thought of as chrysanthemum season, there are three sorts of blooming Mums: early bloomers, early fall bloomers, and late fall bloomers. Early bloomers bloom in late July, early fall bloomers bloom in September; and late fall bloomers begin their spectacular display of colors in October. Although each variety is different, most Mums will bloom for four to eight week.
You can use techniques to extend the flowering time of chrysanthemums. Your Mums will produce more blooms over a longer period of time if you deadhead spent blooms, fertilize in the spring, and minimize overcrowding.
What do you do with Mums after they have bloomed?
You should prune down garden Mums once they have finished flowering to remove all of the faded blossoms (about one-quarter of their height). Some Mums will produce a few more blossoms if the winter remains mild. You need to prune down to about three inches from the ground in late January or early February. They’ll stay dormant all winter and are completely hardy in this climate. New shoots sprout at the base of the old stem stubs in February or early March, signaling the start of new growth.
Therefore, we have learnt about the technique of planting Mums as well as how to grow and care for this flower. GardenHow.net believes that by reading this post, you will be able to develop your own gorgeous chrysanthemum pots. Best of luck!
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