Are you looking for a lovely plant that is both useful and attractive? An excellent option is Calendula. Calendulas give a bright color to every herb garden. Cultivating Calendula in your garden will brighten even the dullest corner with beautiful vibrant yellow and orange flowers in the form of a daisy. Therefore, Calendula is a popular flower that many people prefer to grow in their gardens. This article from gardenhow.net explains the methods for planting Calendula seedlings and provides information related to Calendula.
All about Calendula
Before finding out the methods for planting Calendula seedlings, let’s explore the information about this stunning flower.
Information about Calendula
Calendula is a member of the Asteraceae family and is also known as Pot Marigold, Ruddles, or Common Marigold. Botanical studies show that it originated in the Mediterranean region, with the Crusades probably assisting in its spread at the end of the 11th century. On both sides, the leaves are light to mid-green and have a fuzzy texture. They have a lanceolate shape and grow alternately along the stem, with slightly wavy or toothed margins. Throughout late spring, summer, and fall, single and double floret daisy-like flowers ranging from mild to brilliant yellow, orange, and pastel pink are borne on branching stems. Furthermore, Calendula flowers can grow up to 2-3 inches in diameter and unfurl from tight buds. Green crown-like seed heads grow to brown as the flowers fade and rapidly self-seed. The seeds are crescent-shaped and about a quarter of an inch long, with a rough, spiky texture. Calendula grows to a height of around 24 inches (60cms) in its first year. In India, Calendula is one of the most sacred blooms. Within this framework, it represents recognition, excellence and peace of mind. By now, you can find Marigolds adorning holy statues like a living necklace celebrating Nature in all its glory.Calendula blooms come in a variety of colors, the most popular of which are yellow and orange-gold. Both colors vibrate with the Sun and the energies of joy, abundance, the Third Chakra, intelligence, creativity and clarity.
What are the differences between Calendula and Marigold?
Checking the seeds of these two garden plants is the quickest way to tell them apart. In addition, Calendula seeds are U-shaped and brown in color, with little bumps on the exposed surface. Marigold seeds are black with a white tip and are straight. Furthermore, Marigolds have a disagreeable odor that is quite pungent or spicy, whilst Calendula plants have a slightly sweet perfume.
Why should you choose Calendula in your garden?
Most people believe that planting Calendula is a wonderful idea for your garden with many advantages. Calendula is a flowering herbaceous plant with medicinal benefits that attract useful pollinators, repels garden pests, and is even edible. In most regions, it is considered an annual plant that produces a large number of spectacular blossoms after deadheading spent blooms. Moreover, with color combinations, Calendula can light up your garden and turn out to become a vibrant picture.
There are various Calendula plant types to choose from. Furthermore, Calendulas are a flowering plant genus with only about 20 species. Moreover, not all of these 20 species are well-known. Calendula flowers come in many different varieties and can be found all over the world. Each variety of Calendula has unique characteristics and beauty. Here are some common types :
Calendula officinalis (Pot Marigold)
Regarding Calendula officinalis, it is the most well-known Calendula species. It is also known as common marigold, pot marigold, Scotch marigold, and ruddles. It’s a southern European native.
Calendula Indian Prince
‘Indian Prince’ is a 60-75cm annual or biennial with dark orange daisy-style flowerheads colored reddish-brown on the petals that bloom from summer to autumn.
Calendula has healed, comforted, and put sickness at bay for hundreds of years, glowing as though a hint of the power behind each dazzling bloom. ‘Orange King’ is an old-fashioned cultivar with brilliant orange petals that dates from the early 1920s. Snap off the faded flowers to keep the plant blooming, or trim it frequently because it is both functional and attractive.
Calendula Pink Surprise
Over a long season, frilly, completely double, apricot-colored flowers with a pink tinge appear. This wonderfully stunning Calendula grows to approximately 22″ in height, is disease-resistant, pollinator-friendly, and is tolerant of most soil conditions.
Calendula Snow Princess
Unique color break in flower: the flower appears light yellow in the bud due to light yellow petals at the back. The bloom is virtually white when fully opened, with a dark or golden center.
Calendula Arvensis (Field Marigold)
Calendula arvensis has a common name: Field Marigold. It originates from southern and central Europe and also grows worldwide as an introduced species.
It is an annual or biennial herb that grows to around 50cm in height. Field marigold leaves have a lance-shaped form. Petioles arise from hairy, slender stems to produce them. The inflorescence is made up of a single flower head that measures around 4cm in diameter.
Calendula Maritima (Sea Marigold)
Calendula Maritima is sometimes known as the trailing marigold or sea marigold. It is an extremely rare flowering plant that has been designated as endangered. You can find it along the coast of Sicily (only five small cities in East Sicily).
It reaches a height of 20 to 40 centimeters. On the surface of the leaves are small sticky hairs.
Calendula Palestina is also known as Palestine Marigold. They are annual plants that can grow up to 40cm in height. The leaves range in length from 2.5 to 10 cm and can be as wide as 20mm. Flat, rough, and hairy leaves with wavy and toothed margins.
Discover the best Calendula kinds to add a splash of color to your summer gardening design. Calendula gives a fresh and colorful vibe to the garden with its many kinds.
When is the best time for planting Calendula?
You can plant Calendula outdoors between March and May, for flowering between June and September, or indoors between August and September for flowering between May and July.
- Sowing Calendula seeds indoors: Calendulas can also be started indoors and transplanted to the garden after the soil is workable; avoid transferring Calendula seedlings into the garden during hot weather. Start seeds inside about 8 weeks before the final spring frost date if you live in Zone 5 or colder. It takes 7 to 14 days for seeds to germinate. Sow seed outside in the fall in southern regions.
- Planting Calendula seedlings outdoors: In Zone 5 or cooler, transplant the Calendula seedlings into the garden a week or two before the last spring frost. In Zones 5 to 6, plant the seeds outdoors after the soil has warmed to 60 degrees. In areas 7 to 10, plant the seeds outdoors in the fall, where they need to grow.
Where is the best place for planting Calendula?
Calendula works well as a bedding annual at the front of a border display, and in pots. Grow Calendula among your tomatoes, beans, and other crops in the greenhouse and vegetable patch to attract pollinating insects.
Calendula grows best in full sun in the north and partial shade in the south. Calendula is vulnerable to high heat and crowding. In hot summer climates, Calendula may die in the middle of the season; grow Calendula in dappled shade.
How to plant Calendula?
It is said that planting Calendula is quite an easy challenge for gardeners. Calendula is one of those plants that if you plant once, you’ll have forever because it seeds and spreads rapidly. The best times to plant are early in the morning or late in the day, therefore plants are not exposed to the hot sun immediately. Always water the plants thoroughly before and after planting. The first thing you should do is sow Calendula seeds indoors or outdoors, then you have to transplant Calendula seedlings.
Calendula has a high germination rate, so one seed packet will produce enough to share.
Sowing Calendula Seeds Indoors
Six to eight weeks before the last frost date, you can sow seeds. Germination will take place between 59 and 77 degrees Fahrenheit (15 and 25 degrees Celsius).
Step 1: Choose the location
Instead of regular soil or potting mix, use a seed beginning potting mix. The right mixture of growth material and nutrients is found in the seed starting mix. You can either plant the seeds in a seed starter kit and follow the directions included in the kit, or you can use anything that drains well.
Step 2: Sow Calendula seeds
Press seeds into the soil and cover them with a 1/4-inch layer of soil. Gently press it down with your fingers.
Spritz the top 1/2 inch of soil with water until it feels moist. Maintain the moisture level while the seeds are germinating.
Step 3: After planting Calendula
Cover it with plastic wrap and poke holes in it to allow for air circulation and evaporation.
Then, place it near a southern-facing window that gets at least six hours of sun per day. Alternatively, place it under a grow light or fluorescent light. In five to fourteen days, the seed will germinate. Remove the plastic wrap and discard it. Remove the seedlings that are weaker. If required, rotate the seedlings to avoid them becoming leggy while trying to reach the sunlight.
Step 4: Transplant Calendula seedlings
If the frost date has passed, you can place Calendula seedlings outside once they have developed their second set of leaves.
Direct Sowing Outdoors
After the last frost day, you can sow seeds. In extremely hot weather, Calendula will not germinate. In 7 to 10 days, the seeds will germinate. Calendula thrives in soil pH ranges of 5 to 8 and grows well in Zones 2 to 10. Don’t be surprised if volunteers appear next year.
Step 1: Choose and prepare the location
Plant in full sun, or partial shade if the environment is too hot, in average, well-drained soil. Calendula is considered a cool-season annual by some. Calendula is supposed to stop blossoming in hotter climates.
Step 2: Sow seeds for planting Calendula
Use a high-quality potting mix if you’re using containers.
Scratch the soil, moisten thoroughly, then sow seeds four inches apart and 1/4 inch deep.
Step 3: After planting Calendula
Wait it until the second set of genuine leaves emerges before thinning the plants to eight to twelve inches apart. Plants can reach a height of at least 12 inches and a width of a foot or more.
Seeds and Calendula seedlings should remain moist. As your plant grows, water as necessary.
After sowing Calendula seeds, you can set out the sturdy Calendula seedlings. Then, you have the chance to plant Calendula seedlings in a pot or in the garden.
In a pot
Step 1: Choose a pot and prepare the soil for planting Calendula seedlings
Before planting Calendula seedlings, you have to choose a suitable pot. The key is to find a pot at least 200 mm wide with many drainage holes, as pot marigold cannot withstand wet feet in a pot.
Calendulas planted in pots require full sun and moderate fertilizer. Therefore, you need to place the pot in direct sunlight.
Fill the pot with good potting soil.
Step 2: Plant Calendula seedlings
After preparing the location, the next step is planting Calendula seedlings. Take the plant out of its container. Backfill the hole with soil and gently firm it down.
Step 3: Look after your Calendula seedlings
When you finish planting Calendula seedlings, you should take care of them to help them grow successfully. Gently add in the water and maintain the mixture moist at all times.
In the garden
Step 1: Choose a proper location and prepare the soil for planting Calendula seedlings
Choose a location that gets plenty of suns and has well-drained soil. Then, you can enrich the soils to provide nutrients for growing Calendula seedlings.
Step 2: Start Planting Calendula seedlings
When planting Calendula in the prepared garden bed, make sure the Calendula seedlings are well spaced, at least 20 to 30 cm apart.
Dig the planting hole twice as wide as the root ball and to the same depth. Take the plant out of its container. Backfill the hole with soil and gently firm it down. Form a raised ring around the plant to create a well, allowing water to flow where it is most required.
Step 3: After planting Calendula seedlings
After planting Calendula seedlings, you have proper methods for caring for them. Gently water in and maintain the soil moist at all times.
Mulch to a depth of 5 – 8cm with an organic mulch such as bark chips, woodchips, or pea straw, keeping it away from the plant’s base.
How to take care of Calendula?
Care during seeding and in Calendula seedlings is an essential step for the growth of this flower. Therefore, you need to learn and focus on caring for them based on their growing conditions.
Sunlight and temperature
Calendula grows best in full sun to medium shade, with at least 4-6 hours of direct sunlight every day. Zones 8 to 10 on the USDA map are good for growing. Plants flower best in the cooler months, and they can become dormant in the summer when temperatures exceed 85°F (29°C), only to bloom again in the autumn when the weather has cooled.
Moreover, Calendula is frost-hardy, however, it will not survive if exposed to extreme cold for an extended period. Plants that have spent the winter outdoors will require frost protection in the form of fleece or additional heating. Bring your plant inside and grow Calendula in containers in a light window throughout the winter months if you desire. This keeps them out of potentially hazardous weather.
Soil is one of the most important requirements for planting Calendula seedlings and sowing seeds. Like most members of the daisy family, Calendula requires soil that is well-drained and rich in organic matter. Dense and moist soils can rot roots. The plant tolerates a wide variety of soil pH but prefers slightly acidic to neutral soil (6.0 to 7.0).
It is important to plant and space the Calendula blooms properly in the garden. Plant Calendula plants with 8-12 inch spacing and 18 inch spacing between rows. Proper spacing will facilitate air circulation, proactively combat diseases such as powdery mildew, and allow for an adequate spread of proliferation.
Water in the morning or at night if the plants show signs of withering. Watering by hand and focusing on the soil around the plant, on the other hand, will avoid wetting the foliage. Wet conditions can cause Mildew and other fungal infections of the leaves and stems.
Calendula does not require fertilization and will thrive in the correct soil, light, and water conditions. If your plants aren’t doing well, give them a boost with liquid seaweed or a nitrogen-rich fertilizer in the spring, followed by a potassium-rich fertilizer when they’re in bloom. If you want to encourage more blossom development during the summer, you can give it a boost.
Weeding And mulching
Remove any weeds that are growing near the Calendula plants. To prevent weeds from growing, apply a layer of 2 to 3 inches of mulch. This also aids in the maintenance of soil moisture and the cooling of soil temperatures.
It’s essential for pruning Calendula because in general, many plants will be planted in a pot, with a high density, which will result in poor ventilation and light transmission conditions, plants are easy to infect, and even there will be residual flowers, or the phenomenon of plant climbing, obstructing Calendula viewing, the best is to prune it. There are some pruning techniques such as branch thinning, flower management, and fruit cutting.
You have to learn some useful tips to prune Calendula effectively:
- Cut the branches that are excessively crowded and weak to achieve the goal of ventilation and light transmission.
- To ensure that the plant continues to grow well, the dense branches, branches with buds, and residual blooms should be cut off as the plant grows.
- Another point worth noting is Calendula flower control. The flowers will open slowly and will need to be reshaped, mainly by short pruning, which will allow you to regulate the number of flowers and extend the blooming period by removing the robust branches with flower buds.
- If there is a bud, it must be severed at the part of the bud. For low-growing branches, those with floral buds should be cut at the part of the floral buds, and those without floral buds should be cut.
- Pruning needs to be done on a sunny day, which can be a quick cure for the injury.
In conclusion, Calendula is a beautiful winter and spring flower. It has a rapid growth rate and a high degree of flexibility. The decorative effect will improve after pruning.
Methods for harvesting Calendula
After sowing and planting Calendula seedlings in good conditions, your plants will bloom and you will be able to succeed.
When to harvest Calendula?
You can begin harvesting the Calendula flowers once they begin to blossom. The best time to harvest the blossoms of Calendula is in the morning after the dew dries. They are fresh, opening to the sun, but have no moist petals.
Furthermore, you can also leave the blossoms on the stalk to enjoy the vibrant colors.
Harvesting Calendula blossoms
Calendula is typically harvested by snipping off the flower head at the top of the stalk. Pinch the stem with scissors or your fingers. To prevent the stem from rotting, you may choose to clip back the remaining stem on the plant. After you’ve finished collecting the flower heads, begin carefully plucking the petals from each flower and placing them on a clean piece of white paper. In addition, if your petals have any bugs or dust on them, you should clean them before drying. The best way to do this is to put a handful of them in a plastic kitchen strainer and gently tap it. All of your little friends and dirt particles will fall through, leaving only your clean petals.
Harvesting Calendula blossoms
Drying Calendula petals
Don’t wash the flowerhead. Spread them on a ventilated area: fabric, screen, a mesh of any kind. You can build drying screens from light timber and screen make a frame and staple screen to it. Or, arrange many clean sheets of white paper on a flat, wind- and sun-protected surface. Separate the petals into a single layer on the paper with care. The fewer times they come into contact with each other, the more color they will maintain and the faster they will dry. The drying time for the petals will vary depending on the climate, but 6 to 8 days is a good estimate. Alternatively, you can use an electrical dehydrator inside to dry the Calendula. Use a temperature between 90 and 95 degrees Fahrenheit. Make sure the Calendula is dry before storing it. The dense green flower heads take a lot longer to dry than the petals. When the petals are totally dry, they will seem airy and frail, and they will easily pull away from the heads.
Drying Calendula petals
Store dried Calendula in glass pots with sealed seals or plastic bags or under vacuum. Stay out of the light. Moreover, when it comes to Calendula flowers, they will stay fresh in a vase for up to a week if the water is changed regularly and the stems cut down at each water change. Flower heads are best stored in sealed plastic trays or glassware in the fridge. It allows the flowers to look their best and protects the petals of Calendula against bruising.
You can propagate Calendula from seeds and cuttings. To acquire the best results from any method, you need to pay close attention to the proper steps and conditions. Calendula is easy to cultivate from seed, and most gardeners propagate the flowers this way. You can separate the seeds and sow them for the following year’s crop if you deadhead your flowers after they wilt. Besides, you can use cuttings to propagate Calendula. Using clean, sharp garden scissors, cut off portions of stems between 2 and 6 inches long. There should be three pairs of leaves on each one, but no flowers. All save the top pair of leaves should be removed. Here are some tips for propagating Calendula from cuttings:
- Prepare a tray with well-drained soilless potting mix, moisten it, and then poke planting holes with a screwdriver or stick, then insert the cuttings, and cut the end down, one per hole.
- You can dip the end in rooting hormone.
- Place the tray into a plastic bag so that the bag will not touch the leaves. Move the entire tray to a warm, bright area with indirect light. Water for keeping the ground moist.
- After a few weeks, the roots will develop. When properly established, transfer each rooted cutting to its pot.
Pest and diseases
Even the low-maintenance Calendula can suffer from pests and diseases during the planting Calendula seedlings and mature plants process.
- Aphids: Sucking insects that feed on the undersides of leaves and are greenish, red, black, or peach can spread disease. They leave a sticky coating on the foliage that attracts ants.
- Whitefly: When plants are disturbed or brushed against, these small white flying insects frequently float up in a cloud.
- Slugs: These pests destroy the leaves completely or leave big holes in the foliage. They leave a slime trail, feed at night, and are most noticeable when the weather is wet.
- Spider Mites: These pests are about the size of a grain of pepper and look like spiders. They come in a variety of colors, including red, black, brown, and yellow. They suck on the plant juices, eliminating chlorophyll and injecting poisons, resulting in white spots on the leaves. Webbing is frequently apparent on the plant. They turn the leaves yellow, causing them to become dry and stippled. They reproduce swiftly and thrive in arid environments.
- Tarnished Plant Bug: Leaves and flower buds become damaged as a result of these insects. Adults are approximately 14 inches long, oval in form, and flat. Their wings are reddish-brown with greenish-brown patterns. In the center of the back below the head, there is a little bit of a distinct yellow tipped triangle.
- Powdery Mildew: White fungal spots appear on the leaves of this fungus, which can easily spread to other plants. It thrives in cool, wet weather.
- Aster yellows: Another issue with Calendula is aster yellows, which are caused by a phytoplasma rather than a bacteria or fungus. Plants grow stunted, with yellow-green leaves and blooms, and eventually, die as a result.
- Calendula smut: Another disease that can affect the plants and cause brown spotting is Calendula smut. Small red/purple dots occur on the leaves of Alternaria. Apply a fungicide and keep your garden clean to prevent fungal diseases.
For Calendula seedlings as well as mature plants to grow, you need to monitor, detect and deal with harmful problems as soon as possible.
Calendula companion plants
When it comes to Calendula companion plants, planting Calendula alongside vegetables and some flowers can boost each other’s productivity and make your garden more productive. Calendula draws pollinators to the garden, such as bees and butterflies, which are necessary for plant reproduction. To prevent destruction, you can enjoy planting Calendula with Marigolds because they produce a chemical into the soil that protects the plant from nematodes. To achieve eye-catching appeal, try interplanting marigolds with these flowers such as Aster, Mums, Allium, Coreopsis, Roses, etc. In addition, you also combine Calendula with Tomato, Carrot, and Asparagus. You don’t plant Calendula with Sage and Potato.
Calendula companion plants
Most gardeners enjoy planting Calendula for their bright orange to yellow summer blooms, but Calendulas are much more than a pretty face in an organic vegetable garden. You can use Calendula flowers for medicinal purposes.
Health benefits of Calendula
- Calendula protects against inflammation and cancer
Calendula is high in flavonoids and linoleic acid, both of which assist in reducing inflammation. It also helps in the fight against cancer. In the study, Calendula inhibited the growth of cancer cells and increased the production of lymphocytes (white cells in the lymphatic system).
- Aids in Menstruation
Calendula has traditionally been used to aid in the onset of menstruation. It may also aid in the relief of PMS symptoms such as cramps. Pregnant or breastfeeding women avoid using Calendula because eating Calendula can affect hormone levels and cause menses.
- Promotes skin and wound healing
Calendula promotes tissue and collagen formation, which can assist in wound healing. Moreover, Calendula’s anti-inflammatory properties may also help relieve discomfort and swelling. It can relieve the symptoms of dermatitis in breast cancer patients undergoing radiation, according to a 2004 research.
- Antifungal and Antiseptic
Most people use Calendula oil, tea, and ointment to treat minor skin and eye infections and skin conditions in general. Using Calendula can treat many conditions, including conjunctivitis, diaper rash, and skin wounds.
- Eases Muscle Spasms
Calendula in creams and lotions to relieve muscular spasms. Anyone on medication or about to have surgery should see their doctor before using Calendula.
For the garden
Calendulas in Poland resulted in fewer aphids, cabbage worms, and diamondback moth problems. In a recent study in India, Calendula extract inhibits tobacco cutworm feeding. Moreover, Calendulas also help the garden below ground, where they develop partnerships with soil-borne fungi that transform the plants into soil-cleaning machines.
You can use Calendula as a food to make summer salads because the Calendula petals are edible. Another use of Calendula is for fabric dye. You can use it to tint wool and other materials with natural yellow. They’re also quite lovely, so they make excellent table decorations.Calendulas in Poland resulted in fewer aphids, cabbage worms, and diamondback moth problems
Q & A
Why did your Calendula stop blooming?
After sowing seeds and planting Calendula seedlings, they will blossom in your garden. As you know, Calendula is a cool-season blooming that will slow down in the warmer season. Cut back the plant, and the blooms reappear when the weather cools. Moreover, Calendula thrives in poor soil, so don’t overfeed it.
How long does it take for Calendula to bloom?
Calendula requires time to flower after planting seedlings in the best growing conditions. Calendula plants start blooming 45-60 days after germination, and they’ll keep blooming as long as you keep picking the flowers. If you keep up with your dead-heading, they’ll bloom all summer and fall. Some will even bloom throughout the winter in warmer areas.
Taking everything into consideration, planting Calendula not only lights up your landscape with vibrant flowers but also brings many benefits to our life. gardenhow.net hopes that this article has provided additional information about sowing seeds and planting Calendula seedlings. You have the opportunity to build a unique landscape with small Calendula seedlings. If you want to grow Calendula successfully, make sure to follow the guidelines in this article. Thank you for reading!